After you have requested that custom grading periods be set up in your course and they have been implemented, you will be able to view both the custom grading periods (quarter, semester, etc.) and the grading for the full year in your Gradebook. To switch between these, simply select the desired period from the dropdown menu of the Gradebook as shown below.
If you do not see the items in your Gradebook in the correct grading periods, you will need to adjust the due dates that you entered after setup in order for the graded items to fall into the desired grading period. To add due dates, follow the instructions in this article.